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Wildlife History Of Nepal

History and Status:

A. Before 1955:
      WL resources are plenty
      No concern for WL protection
      Rana protect and conserve the forest as well as WL for their hunting purpose

B. 1951-1955 (King Tribhuvan Era):
      No significant work in WL conservation
      Only organized hunting in yearly basis

C. 1st to 4th five year plans: 1956-1975 (King Mahendra era):
      Most work was initiated and done in WL conservation and protection.

Nationalization of forest act 1957 (2013)
Proposed Chitwan for protection
Made and passed cos\nstitution of WL protection Act, 1957
This may be regarded as the initial effect in WL conservation in Nepal
Increasing the Gainda poaching in Chitwan, result  of that Gainda gasti was established
For Rhino protection purpose, Chitwan was declared as rhino Century
Under the WL protection Act, 6 Royal hunting reserve in terai and one on mountain was gazette
Mahendra Proclaimed Chitwan as a 1st National Park
Nepal Nature Conservation Society established to: Encourage and support conservation and management of natural environment
Under the support of UNDP and FAO the government started the Park and WL conservation project with the objective of:

1.      Develop Pas and Conservation laws
2.      Propose and survey of PAs and develop list of protected and hunting species.
Marks an important date
Passed NP and WL conservation Act, 1973  (Nepal’s 1st conservation laws, the act allow for:
1.      4 types of Pas (NP, WLR, HR and SNR), Department of NP and WL resources
2.      Special power to warden
3.      Allowed thatch grass cutting in Terai
4.      Listed hunting and endangered species (Mammals-20, and Birds-4)
5.      Allowed hunting for wild boar
Gazetted of RCNP as 1st National Park of Nepal
Tiger Ecology project was stated
Department of SCWM, that added the conservation of WL habitat
National Committee for Man and Biosphere establish
Military Protection of PAs, only limited responsibility to them
5th and 6th five years plans (1974-1985)
Natural History Museum established in KTM for:
1.      Environment and nature conservation
2.      Education and awareness
3.      Nepal became state party member of CITES
4.      Protection responsibility was given to Royal Nepal Army
5.      Management Plan of Chitwan, Langtang, Rara, Bardiya and Khaptad prepared
Establishment and gazette of Langtang NP, Rara NP, Bardia WLR and Koshitappu WLR and Suklaphanta WLR represent the contry different ecological zone.
Nepal became state party of World heritage Convention
All Hahisar were recognized and transported to DNPWC
Ghariyal Breeding Centre was established in Kasra, Chitwan
Nepal organized 1st Phsesant symposium in Kathmandu
Sagarmatha NP was declared as WH sites
Established Elephant breeding cnter in Khorsor, Sauraha
Department of NP was established as full phase
Shey-phoksundo NP established
Diploma in Forestry started at IOF, Pokhara
KMTNC was established as a 1st NGO for nature conservation
NP act 2nd amendment took place
Khaptad NP, Parsa WLR and Dhorpatan HR field office established and Parsa and Khaptad was gazette
RCNP was declared in HW sites
Seventh Five-year Plan (1985-1990)
UNDP/FAO/HMG parks and Pas monitoring projects began to:
1.      Monitor nationwide wildlife population
2.      Developed environmental program
3.      ACAP was constituted/established under the KMTNC
Shovapuri watershed and WL reserve established
Preparation of NCS, this is the 1st policy for BD conservation
DHR was Gazetted and KTWR declared as 1st Ramsar site under Ramsar Convention in Nepal
MPFS was prepared to conserve ecosystem and genetic resources
Makalu Barun NP and CA established (In 2000, CA converted into BZ areas)
Eight five-year plan (1992-1997)
Environmental Protection Council was established for policy  formulation and coordination of BD conservation
Nepal signed the convention of BD in Rio Earth Summit
GEF was set up to work on BD conservation
4th amendment of NPWC Act where BZ provision was included and passed
NEPAP-1 was prepared, WWF filed office was established in KTM
Rhino Action Plan was prepared by DNPWC
Park People Project started in terai Pas, BZ of 5 Pas
Nepal became state party in CBD
Rhino Count took Place (544)
BD Profile reports

BZ regulation was Gazetted  and Manaslu CAP was established
BZ of Chitwan and Bardiya declared
Ninth Five-Year Plan (1197-2002)
KCA was declared
Bardiya Research Project on Tiger, Elephant and Ghariyal Established (NORAD)
Shey Phoksundo and Langtang BZ declared
PP Project was extended to Rara and Khaptad NP
Collaborative management of pAs system began
Tiger action Plan was prepared
Makalu Barun BZ Gazetted
Management Strategy Framwork of 9 NP’s and WR conducted (ZOPP)
Rhino count was conducted (Chitwan-612 and Bardiya-64)
GIS database of NP prepared almost Terai parks (except Suklaphanta)
WWF started TAL scheme established and field office in Bardiya setup
Shivapuri NP gazette, Sagarmatha BZ gazette
Tenth five Year plan (2002 onwards)
Ghodahgodi, Bishazari tal and Jagdishpur reservoir in Ramsar sites
Koshitappu BZ declared
Parsa WR and Suklaphanta BZ declared
Rhino Count in Chitwan (372)
Rhino action plan (2006-11)
Shey Phoksundo NP and BZ mgt. plan (2006-11)
Sukla Phanta WLR and BZ mgt plan (2006-11)
WWF-snow leopard conservation action strategy for Himalayan region (2006)
Vulture conservation action plan of Nepal (2009-11)
WL damage relief guidelines 2066 BS (2009)
Declared: Krishnasar CA
Declared: Api nampa CA, Gaurishankar CA, Banke NP
Tiber count: 155

Rhino cont:
In chitwan -145M, 183F, 175 sex not identified (332 adult, 60 sub adult, 111 calf) total 503
In Bardiya-5M, 9F, 10 sex not identified (15 A, 4SA, 5C) total 24
In Sukla – 2M, 2F, 3 sex not identified (4 A, 2 SA, 1 C) total 7
In total Rhino in Nepal : 534
(2011-12) Tiger count: in Nepal, tiger in Nepal is 176

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