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Man-induced changes of the global climate are the
result of the ‘Western’ lifestyle and a growing world population.The industrial countries, China and India are the main producers of the greenhouse gases  (CO2,CH4, Nox, CFCs); Developing Countries will suffer most. An increase in temperature sea level rise, changes in precipitation, humidity, the number of extreme events (like floods, droughts, storms) have numerous impacts on all human and natural systems.
Nepals contribution to climate change is very low, but the effects of global warming on the country are very high and costly.

 Impacts on Nepal: (1) Higher temperatures, resulting in receding snow lines, rapid snow-melting, glacial lake outbursts, higher water demand of nature and crops,more pests & diseases etc. (2) more weather extremes (), resulting in droughts and floods and more stress for people, agricultural crops and livestock.

Mitigation: Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by

(1)   Reducing demand for emissions-intensive goods and services,

(2)  Increased efficiency, which can save both money and emissions,

(3) Action on non-energy emissions, such as avoiding deforestation, and

(4) Switching to lower-carbon technologies for power, heat and transport.

Adaptation: Adaptation strategies in all economic sectors are needed to cope with future challenges (e.g. less surface water, severe drought situations, higher floods) and to be prepared for emergencies.

Carbon trading: Emissions trading works by allowing countries to buy and sell their in the Kyoto-Protocolagreed allowances of greenhouse gas emissions. 
Through the ‚Clean Development Mechanism‘ (CDM), industrialized countries invest in projects in Developing Countries and obtain credits for achieved emission reductions.

Each ton of carbon costs about 10 US $ in the international market.

Nepal's farmers on the front line of global climate change - Himalayan communities face catastrophic floods as weather patterns alter Nepal is on the front line of climate change and variations are now being recorded in communities all over Nepal.

For some people the changes are catastrophic. "The rains are increasingly unpredictable. We always used to have a little rain each month, but now when there is rain it's very different. It's more concentrated and intense. It means that crop yields are going down," 

says Tekmadur Majsi, whose lands have been progressively washed away by the Tirshuli river. He now lives with 200 other environmental change refugees in tents in a small grove of trees by a highway. 
Source: The Guardian, Dec. 2006; http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2006/dec/02 "Unless the country learns to adapt then people will suffer greatly,"

Carbon Trading: Example Biogas

Nepal’s biogas projects are considered to be the most advanced of the country’s CDM projects. Each biogas plants prevent around 5 ton of Carbon dioxide from being released to the air in one year. Each ton of carbon dioxide costs between 5 and 10 US$.
In fact, the Nepal Biogas Support Program has already received a Letter of Intent from the Community Development Carbon Fund (CDCF) of the World Bank’s Carbon Finance Unit for the purchase of 1 million tons of carbon dioxide (1 ton of CO2 abated is referred to as 1 ER) for around $ 4.5 million.  It is estimated that the household biogas sector alone can generate over 50 million ERs in the next 20 years.

Carbon Trading

Nepal has formed a Designated National Authority (DNA) to screen and approve CDM projects.  The newly formed DNA structure includes National CDM Council, which is chaired by Secretary at the MoEST; and DNA Secretariat headed by joint secretary at the Environment Division of MoEST.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has also included Nepal as one of the 15 participating countries to implement the PREGA (Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement) Project,  which will, among others, generate a pipeline of investment projects for consideration for financing through commercial, multilateral and bilateral sources, including specialized treaty-linked mechanisms such as the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and CDM

Adaptation Options:

Reduction in glacial lake outburst (GLOF) risks

The physical reduction of flooding risks of glacial lakescan be achieved by:

 • Draining the lake by siphons or pumps

 • Cutting a drainage channel for the lake to periodically drain

• Flood control measures downstream to mitigate the effects of the flood

 • Developing a GLOF early warning system.

Preconditions for effective mitigation are education, training, mobilization

Local level campaign: More participatory Community based management- Awareness, Plantation, PE

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